Treatment And Cure Of Sleeping Disorders With The CBD Oil

CBD or cannabidiol is a chemical compound that is found in the cannabis plant; a lot of people think that CBD is addictive and can make a person “high” or “stoned” but it is nothing like it, in fact, surprisingly CBD is known for having a good effect and can treat a...

Important elements to guide you when buying a new modern TV

Most consumers do not overlook some specific features when purchasing a brand new television. Though they have a vague idea on what to find on a modest television, they are specific for specific features to look for. Other than the common specifications like brand,...

Play Clash Of Clans Like A Pro With The Online Game Tool

Who doesn’t like gaming? It is probably the best way to forget about the worries and anxieties that life brought upon us. There are many games that are available on the market which are popular these days. But some of the games have become sensational and everyone is...

The Importance of Drain Care and Maintenance

Frequently, many homes have poorly maintained drains because such sections of the home are typically out of sight. Homeowners tend to relegate maintenance of drains to the back burner; often focusing on parts of the house that have aesthetic appeal. However, it is...

School Choice Families

Parents and students are the most important individuals involved in school choice. Thousands of families, and more than 20,000 students, benefit from tax-supported choice programs in Florida, Cleveland, and Milwaukee. Tens of thousands of other parents throughout the...

School Choice Facts

In the politically charged world of education policy, school choice programs often are labelled “new,” “experimental,” “controversial,” or “untested.” Yet, at the same time, most American parents take school choice for granted. As Richard Elmore and Bruce Fuller...

School Choice Story Misleads

In a highly misleading article, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel this week misrepresented a new study from the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute (WPRI).  The paper’s coverage has generated considerable attention in Wisconsin and nationally. The first half of a...

New Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students

Associate Professor & Director of Undergraduate Studies Department of Sociology ~ University of Minnesota-Twin Cities 612-280-2945 Students in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program graduate at a higher rate than students in the Milwaukee Public Schools, according to a...

Washington Post Editorial: Vouching for Vouchers

Editorial originally appeared in the Washington Post IN MAKING education his top priority, D.C. Mayor Adrian M. Fenty has been guided by one principle: Children trump politics. It's an idea that Mr. Fenty might want to expound on when he goes to Capitol Hill this week...

Updated Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students

Hot Topics Updated Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students May 2008 OR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: MAY 27, 2008 CONTACT: John Robert Warren, Ph.D. Associate Professor & Director of Undergraduate Studies Department of Sociology ~ University of...

Hot News…

School Choice Facts

School Choice Facts

In the politically charged world of education policy, school choice programs often are labelled “new,” “experimental,” “controversial,” or “untested.” Yet, at the same time, most American parents take school choice for granted. As Richard Elmore and Bruce Fuller...

School Choice Families

School Choice Families

Parents and students are the most important individuals involved in school choice. Thousands of families, and more than 20,000 students, benefit from tax-supported choice programs in Florida, Cleveland, and Milwaukee. Tens of thousands of other parents throughout the...

Featured Post 

School Choice Story Misleads

In a highly misleading article, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel this week misrepresented a new study from the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute (WPRI).  The paper’s coverage has generated considerable attention in Wisconsin and nationally. The first half of a...

News and Updates…

Treatment And Cure Of Sleeping Disorders With The CBD Oil

CBD or cannabidiol is a chemical compound that is found in the cannabis plant; a lot of people think that CBD is addictive and can make a person “high” or “stoned” but it is nothing like it, in fact, surprisingly CBD is known for having a good effect and can treat a lot of disorders and ailments. Cannabis or the CBD is known to be quiet effective for treating sleeping aid and nausea; it is even used for treating anxiety and other mood disorders. This is a proof that CBD cannot make a person high but on the contrary can calm a person and is quite effective for anti-anxiety treatment.

Lack of sleep can make a person cranky and grumpy, well it is also said that poor quality of sleep can lead to serious health conditions and can cause problems such as heart diseases and high blood pressure, stroke being the severe most. So if you are dealing with sleeping disorder, which is quite frustrating; then CBD oil for sleep issues is the answer to all your sleep related problems.

CBD oil for sleeping disorders 

What is CBD oil? Well the CBD oil is known to be derived from the seeds as well as from the stalk of the cannabis plant and is rich in nutrients; such as the amino acids, omega-3 fatty acids, terpenes and the vitamins. CBD products are known to be pure and CBD oil is one such product. It has innumerable benefits but there is one common issue that a lot of us deal with and that is problem of lack of sleep or insomnia. So, if you are struggling hard to sleep at night, then you are not alone there are a lot of individuals around the world that deal with this. A lot of such individuals take medicines prescribed by their doctor for insomnia or for other sleep related problems but not all these medications are as effective as the CBD oil for sleep issues.

Facing sleep disorder is not a small issue; in fact it could be a bigger problem or become one if not treated timely. A lot of people face sleeping disorders mainly because their mind is running constantly, well this is common and this is mainly because people today are stressed and face constant anxiety.

How does CBD work for sleep?

CBD oil for sleep issues has the capability to lower down the anxiety level, which is a cause for insomnia; this further helps in reducing the problem of sleeplessness and also helps in improving the quality of sleep. It improves insomnia and increases the sleep timings; it also is helpful in curing the problem of insomnia in those people who face chronic pain. It has anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic and soothing properties which in a way help in improving the quality of sleep and in reducing the problem of insomnia.

CBD also helps in making a person alert and it reduces the constant sleepiness that people face during the day time leading to insomnia at night. Overall it in a way helps in improving the sleep cycle. Those who suffer from Parkinson’s disease have REM behaviour which leads to day dreaming and REM sleep, in which the body gets paralysed. CBD oil helps in reducing this problem and REM behaviour, improving the quality of sleep in those who suffer from Parkinson’s disease.

CBD oil for sleep issues is known to be effective in treating lack of sleep caused by the following:

  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Chronic pain
  • Fatigue

Why use CBD oil over sleeping pills?

It is very easy to pop in a sleeping pill and dose of to sleep, but have you ever realised that these sleeping pills which you can easily get from any drug store can be quite harmful to your overall health. Sleep related problems are not alone well they come with a lot of side effects, and to treat a long term problem of this sort needs something that is less harmful and has minor side effects.

CBD oil is the safest thing to use to treat sleeping disorders as it has minor side effects; it is effective and safe for the body in the long run.

The dosage of CBD oil for sleep disorders

Before taking any kind of medication to treat any health related problem, it is always better to consult a doctor. However, the amount of CBD oil for sleep issues differs individually depending upon the weight, diet and the condition type of the person. According, to a few researches, it is said that CBD oil for sleep should be taken in a dose which is upto 160 mg, it is better to take it in small doses as high dosage can be quite sedating.

Start with a small dose and then increase it if necessary, CBD oil is safe to use but taking a small dose helps in adjusting to it.

Things to remember before using CBD oil

CBD oil is good for treating sleeping disorders but before taking this oil it is very important to understand and remember the following things:

  • Children should not be given CBD oil as it is only suitable for adults to use it.
  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding then avoid taking CBD oil or consult a doctor before thinking of doing so.

These are a few things that really need to be considered before taking CBD oil, also remember not to take an overdose of the CBD oil.

CBD oil is great but before buying it do your research, you can buy it online but it is better to do a proper study before buying it. Online there are a lot of websites that sell CBD online, it is recommended to read the reviews before placing an order. There are also a lot of different brands of CBD oil available so an intensive research and reading of reviews before buying would be of great help.

Important elements to guide you when buying a new modern TV

Most consumers do not overlook some specific features when purchasing a brand new television. Though they have a vague idea on what to find on a modest television, they are specific for specific features to look for. Other than the common specifications like brand, type, and price and size there more interesting features to look for.

Dynamic range

Increased dynamic range improves contrast, colour and brightness of all the content presented on the television. It adds more details to colour such that it looks original and defined. These also helps show small features that would have been otherwise shadowed and appear to belong to the larger details. The ratio of dark and light is increased such that the dark features appear darker while the bright appear brighter. This delivers more vibrant colour, enhances contrast enhancing clarity to give a clearer and natural view. The outcome is precise content imitating the real world live visuals.

Media interface and connectivity

This are interfaces with the ability to transmit audio and visual content across devices such as television, media streaming devices, gaming consoles, Bluetooth players such as phones, speakers and computers among others. A good TV should be able to share and receive media to and from other devices with ease. Today the technology have evolved and televisions can have hardware and software installed such as USB cables port, internet and other networks to enable them connect to other Medias within range.

This has in turn facilitated the increased sharing of all types of media to give more options to display and get entertained. Data transfer in high speeds gives more bandwidths to the sharing network. The manner in which a television integrates to a live environment is highly dependent on how it handles its connections.

Smart televisions

A television that has the capability of accessing the internet is referred to as a smart TV. It can install apps, download content, browse the web and enjoy video streaming from the internet. This TV is practical for a modern world especially the youths, who spend reasonable time on the net. It also gives diversity by offering a wide range to source entertainment from. You are not limited to the TV channels provided by local cable providers. You also have the freedom of choosing to watch what you want at any given time and anywhere if portable.

Refresh rate

This is the frequency in which the displayed image is refreshed every second. Hertz are used to measure this rate. This is more ideal for video games and action movies where more frames are shown per second. As the rate increases the smoother the images displayed which in turn reduce the blurred motion.

Aspect ratio

This is generally the ratio of television width -height ration. Though the screen can always be adjusted this is to some limit. Some visuals are widescreen while some are simply small. Most common ratio is 16:9 and is suitable for most productions. What you watch much should actually determine the dimensions for your screen.

Colour volume

The volume of the colour is something to do with colour depth. Most televisions have a standard depth that is acceptable. However, if you are into good quality, it is good to consider great colour depth per channel i.e. 8 bits. The merit of this depth is providing more logical images and satisfactory colours for the human visual.

Display

There are several common types of display. These include:

  1. LCD

They are common, readily available and reasonably cheap. Their colour is good, does not consume a lot of energy. One of their drawbacks is that for you to get the best view you need to position yourself directly opposite the screen. They also have low refresh rate that is not suitable for action movies and fast frame gaming.

  1. LED

LED TVs are generally expensive than LCDs and plasma. They have a high contrast ratio and use less power. They are a genre of LCDs but use backlight, LED, for the display liquid crystals.

  1. Plasma

Plasma TV has large displaying monitors and good for viewing good quality videos. The images are beautiful, thanks to the high contrast ratio and colour depth. Unlike the LCD TV, plasma can be well viewed from different angles clearly without the colour being affected. The only noticeable drawback is that the resolution is very low and brightness is an issue.

  1. OLED

This TVs use LED light but with but with colour. Like the LED displays, they also save on power but not as much. They are the best to use in a well lit room since they display very good quality image and brightness is not an issue. They also have great cinematic visuals because of the great contrast ratio. The major limitation of these monitors is that they are expensive and also have limited viewing angles.

Other factors to consider

Having all this information with you will help you make great decisions as you buy your new TV. One more thing to consider is the brand. The most common brands are recommended if you don’t want to try new ones. But it does not harm trying new things. It is also recommendable to view rating of products on their websites and also customer reviews. There are also sites that help consumers make informed decisions on electric appliances like the keuzehelper. This will help you gain more information to consider when choosing the right television.

Price is also something that you should never ignore. Though cheap is expensive, you can afford all the fine things in life. But do not hinder you from seeking good quality. It is better to spend more on something that will work for you rather than spend little with something that disgusts you. Other things that you should consider are power consumption, durability, compactness to fit well in your house. So with all this information you can choose the right television that you will enjoy for a long time.

Play Clash Of Clans Like A Pro With The Online Game Tool

Who doesn’t like gaming? It is probably the best way to forget about the worries and anxieties that life brought upon us. There are many games that are available on the market which are popular these days. But some of the games have become sensational and everyone is playing or had played the game. One such game is the Clash of Clans. The game has a wide fan following and hence achieved a worldwide acclaim. The game is all about strategies and patience. You have to build a village in which you have to create buildings for defending your village or for getting resources which are the essentials for the village without which you cannot survive in the games you play. It is where you need a tool that would give you almost unlimited resources and hence you could use them and make a great advancement in the game.

Unlimited resources

This is the reason why most of the people make use of the website. Collecting elixir, gold, and precious dark elixir could be quite difficult when you want to have a certain upgrade in your village or troops. But wouldn’t it be nice that you practically an unlimited amount of gems? Well, when you make use of the website you could get an unlimited amount of resources and hence it would be quite easy for you to advance further in the game, without facing any issues about the wait it involves in its regular or common gameplay.

Don’t wait

Waiting for the next level for a large amount of time probably is the most disliked part of the game. Many people don’t like the game as it requires too much patience as an upgrade might take as long as 20 days for an update. But when you have an unlimited amount of gems in your account then it would be quite easier to move forward in the game. This would surely save a great deal of time and you won’t be annoyed by the annoying wait that you might be doing while playing the game. Hence you would be able to do something more productive that you wanted to perform.

The level you desire

To get to new levels in a clash of clans is really difficult. There are a lot of tasks and achievements that you need to have while you are playing the game. But when you have the tool of great gameplay with you then it would become quite easier for you to complete most of your achievements when you have a practically unlimited share of resources by your side.

No ban for you

The server of the game is really highly secured. Many people have tried to breach in its server and make their account practically the best but all they got a ban on their account. This ban is mostly for a whole lifetime. Well, this could be scary for some people as they have spent most of their time on the game and don’t want to get their account mauled down in such a way. But when you make use of the service provided by the site, you won’t be traced and hence you won’t be ever able to get your account banned. There is a team of security analytics that keeps the server always updated and test it against many anti-piracy tools. Hence, when you are making the use of the website you don’t need to be worried about your account safety.

Top the leaderboard

When you have almost every type of resource by your side it is quite easy for yourself to get on the top of the leaderboard. This is surely the dream of a clash of clan player that they will get on the top of the leaderboard. After you have all the resources, all you need is a nice and working strategy that would help you conquer all your enemies and also a base layout that would save it from the future raids. Hence this would be an extremely good decision to make use of the website and amaze your friends by using the site and topping the leaderboard.

Easy access

The website is easily available on the internet. Almost every type of the search engine is able to let you search the website. You could easily register on the website and make your gaming experience reach new skylines. Not much of your details are asked in the form. All you have to do is provide an email for the website and set a password for yourself and you are ready to do the tango.

User-friendly server

The server of the website is quite user-friendly. You would be able to locate each and every type of the section easily without any difficulty. Even for a person who is not aware much about the handling and working of a website, he would easily be able to guide himself without any help to the right destination he was intending to take from the start. This is one of the major reason why the server is attracting many people towards itself and becoming popular day by day.

It’s free!

This is probably the best part of the website. You would be able to enjoy the service of the website without even paying a penny to them. All you need to do is register on the site and let them do all the hard work. This is quite beneficial as who doesn’t want a free service and moreover, this is will help you to gain some leverage over your competitors in the game. So don’t waste any more of your precious time and go use the website to get the advantages you always desired.

When you want to get some advantage in the game then this online tool would be there for you to let you grow in the game quite easily without facing much of difficulty.

The Importance of Drain Care and Maintenance

The Importance of Drain Care and Maintenance

Frequently, many homes have poorly maintained drains because such sections of the home are typically out of sight. Homeowners tend to relegate maintenance of drains to the back burner; often focusing on parts of the house that have aesthetic appeal. However, it is imperative to pay attention to drains because they aid in removing waste, as well as excess water away from the home to the sewers. Backed up drains are not only repulsive, but can also be a health hazard to the home. Pools of stagnant water in the sink or tub can harbor perilous bacteria, and cause the entire house to reek tremendously. There are numerous benefits of drain maintenance.

Prevents Blockages and Clogs

Drain care and maintenance is an essential activity in the home because it prevents blockages and clogs. A clogged sewer line can potentially cause damage to a significant section of the home’s piping system. Also, blockages can cause wastewater to drain slowly. When clogs cause extensive obstruction, homeowners might have to enlist the services of a professional plumber. Regular maintenance can prevent such occurrences and subsequently, save the homeowner a significant amount of money.

Lengthens the Lifespan of the Plumbing System

Typically, many homeowners posit that they have bigger things to worry about than check the drainage system. Drain maintenance is vital in ensuring that the piping stands the test of time. When wastewater flows smoothly, it is possible to improve the longevity of the septic system.

To Restore Old Homes

Most old homes tend to have archaic plumbing. There are different factors that affect plumbing including rusty pipes, root intrusion, or displaced piping. Regular maintenance is imperative in such homes because the age of the piping can compromise the integrity of the drain. Restoration of such drains prevents severe problems and save the homeowner thousands of dollars in repairs, as well as time.

old_home

Reduces Odors

One major characteristic of poorly maintained drains is unpleasant smells. Bad odors can affect the comfort of the home and thus negatively affect the quality of life. It is crucial to call the plumber whenever one notices odors emanating from the drains. Additionally, it is important to conduct repairs immediately to enhance the hygiene and cleanliness of the home.

To Mitigate Blockages Caused by Humans

In homes where there are families, it is likely that young and naïve children could throw things down sinks or toilets. In some instances, children can throw toys or dolls down a drain without the knowledge of an adult. Drain care and maintenance can mitigate against such problems and ensure the homeowner discovers blockages before it is too late.

In conclusion, it is evident that drain maintenance is a necessary step in maintaining a clean home. Not only does maintenance alleviate bad odors, but it also saves the homeowner a significant amount of money in the long term. Drains, just like any other part of the home, need to be regularly checked. Evidently, the fact that the drains are out of sight is not a prerequisite to ignore them.

School Choice Families

School Choice Families

Parents and students are the most important individuals involved in school choice.

Thousands of families, and more than 20,000 students, benefit from tax-supported choice programs in Florida, Cleveland, and Milwaukee. Tens of thousands of other parents throughout the country use privately financed vouchers to choose the school that their children attend.

Most students in school choice programs are from low-income families. The majority are African American and Hispanic.

School choice has had a powerful impact on these families. A wide range of studies document high levels of parent satisfaction and involvement. For example, assessing the Milwaukee program, Education Week said it “has deeply involved long-alienated parents in their children’s schooling…a powerful retort to educators who have long suggested that parents burdened by social and economic problems could devote but minimal attention to educational issues.”

School choice families are part of a diverse coalition of strange bedfellows. It reflects a cross-section of political, economic, racial, and ethnic groups. The coalition includes nonpartisan, Democratic, and Republican elected officials, community activists from a wide range of interests, employers seeking qualified workers, public and private educators, and thousands of individual citizens.

While no family is typical, a compelling picture of school choice emerges from individual stories of families currently participating in school choice programs.

School Choice Facts

School Choice Facts

In the politically charged world of education policy, school choice programs often are labelled “new,” “experimental,” “controversial,” or “untested.”

Yet, at the same time, most American parents take school choice for granted. As Richard Elmore and Bruce Fuller explain:

“Choice is everywhere in American education. It is manifest in the residential choices made by families [and] in the housing prices found in neighborhoods [and] when families, sometimes at great financial sacrifice, decide to send their children to private schools…. [I]n all instances, these choices…are strongly shaped by the wealth, ethnicity, and social status of parents and their neighborhoods.”

Who Chooses? Who Loses? Culture, Institutions, and the Unequal Effects of School Choice, Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1996.

Similarly, Jeffrey Henig and Stephen Sugarman describe the “very considerable degree to which families already select the schools their children attend…. [B]y one plausible way of counting, more than half of American families now exercise school choice [and] some families have more choice than others.”

“The Nature and Extent of School Choice,” in School Choice and Social Controversy, Politics, Policy and Law, Sugarman and Kemerer, eds., The Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

In other words, parental school choice in America is widespread — unless you’re poor.

This website focuses on recently enacted tax-supported programs that provide educational vouchers for parents of students in low-income families (Milwaukee and Cleveland); students in failing public schools (Florida); and students with disabilities (Florida). See the Summary of Key Provisions for an overview (Click here to get Adobe Acrobat Reader). The chart below illustrates their growth.

This site also describes longstanding educational voucher programs in Maine and Vermont. Finally, it briefly summarizes educational tax credit and tax deduction programs in Arizona, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania.

The phrase “school choice” is also often used with respect to a broader range of efforts. For example, there are dozens of privately financed voucher programs; thousands of tax-supported charter schools; many states that provide educational tax credits and deductions; more than a million parents who educate their children at home; and dozens of school districts that have entered into public-private partnerships to manage schools. The federal “No Child Left Behind” Act provides parents of students in failing schools with options to attend the school of their choice; however, these options are limited to public schools. Private schools are not included in the program.

School Choice Story Misleads

School Choice Story Misleads

In a highly misleading article, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel this week misrepresented a new study from the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute (WPRI).  The paper’s coverage has generated considerable attention in Wisconsin and nationally.

The first half of a lengthy, page one article leaves readers with the distinct impression that the WPRI study deals with the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP).  This impression is reinforced by the story’s headline:

Choice may not improve schools, study says
Report on MPS comes from longtime supporter of plan

In fact, however, the WPRI study has absolutely nothing to do with the MPCP, the country’s oldest program providing vouchers that parents may use to enroll their children in private schools.  Nor does the study deal with another major choice program in Milwaukee involving independent public charter schools.  The fact that two major choice programs are excluded from the study is mentioned only once in the Journal Sentinel story, and then not until the twelfth paragraph.

The Journal Sentinel article does not address how a study that excludes major choice programs can reach definitive conclusions about the impact of choice.

What, then, does the study encompass?  It attempts to determine how many parents of students in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) make good choices in selecting public schools.  Using a highly subjective and debatable methodology, the study concludes that most MPS parents do not make discerning choices.  Significantly, deep into the Journal Sentinel article, readers learn that in reaching this conclusion the “report did not analyze actual data from MPS or interviews or surveys with MPS parents.”

In summary, while the WPRI report  purports to address the impact of school choice in Milwaukee, it excludes two of the major education options available to Milwaukee parents.  Further, it relies on no data from MPS or MPS parents.

An initial review of the study suggests that it contains notable factual errors.  A more deliberate review of the report is forthcoming.  It will address factual errors and analyze the study’s controversial methodology.

New Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students

New Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students

Associate Professor & Director of Undergraduate Studies
Department of Sociology ~ University of Minnesota-Twin Cities
612-280-2945

Students in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program graduate at a higher rate than students in the Milwaukee Public Schools, according to a University of Minnesota expert on high school graduation rates.

In “Graduation Rates for Choice and Public School Students in Milwaukee,” John Robert Warren, Ph.D., analyzes four years of data for students in the Milwaukee school choice Program and the Milwaukee Public Schools. Dr. Warren’s report represents the most comprehensive review yet of graduation levels among school choice and public school students in Milwaukee.

“Students in choice program high schools are more likely to graduate from high school than students in public high schools,” according to Warren.

He added, “Overall, had public high school graduation rates equaled those for school choice students, the number of public school graduates would have been 14 per cent higher from 2003 to 2006.” Underscoring the importance of this finding, Warren’s report notes, “Decades of evidence from scholarship in sociology, economics, education, public health, political science and other disciplines makes plain that completing high school is a prerequisite for success in modern America.”

The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program is the nation’s oldest and largest to provide public support for parents to enroll their children in private schools. Through the program, 18,550 students this year attend one of 122 private schools in the City of Milwaukee.

For the classes of 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, Warren reports the following graduation rates. In three of four years, rates for school choice students are higher than those in public schools. Warren believes the one exception — in 2003-04 — might be an anomaly.

Milwaukee Public Schools students – Milwaukee School choice program students

2003: 48% – 62%
2004: 65% – 61%
2005: 52% – 61%
2006: 53% – 64%

About the Author and Report

John Robert Warren is an Associate Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Sociology at the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities. Dr. Warren received his doctorate in 1998 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Dr. Warren’s scholarship reflects extensive examination of issues associated with the accurate measurement of high school graduation rates. In “State-Level High School Completion Rates: Concepts, Measures, and Trends,” he validated a rigorous new method for calculating graduation rates (see Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 13, No. 51, December 23, 2005 — http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v13n51/).

Dr. Warren participates with scholars at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), an extensive long-term research project involving graduates of Wisconsin high schools in 1957 (see http://www.wisls.org/about.htm).

Dr. Warren also is an expert in the emerging issue of state high school exit examinations.

“Graduation Rates for Choice and Public School Students in Milwaukee” was supported by a grant from School Choice Wisconsin, a nonprofit organization that seeks to ensure an honest debate about school choice by providing accurate information on the impact of school choice on families, communities, and schools.

Washington Post Editorial: Vouching for Vouchers

Washington Post Editorial: Vouching for Vouchers

Editorial originally appeared in the Washington Post

IN MAKING education his top priority, D.C. Mayor Adrian M. Fenty has been guided by one principle: Children trump politics. It’s an idea that Mr. Fenty might want to expound on when he goes to Capitol Hill this week to defend funding for the city’s unique school voucher program.

Political ideology and partisan gamesmanship should not be allowed to blow apart the educational hopes of hundreds of D.C. children. Congress must respect the judgment of District leaders in giving parents a choice in one of the most crucial aspects of their children’s lives.

A minefield awaits Mr. Fenty as he prepares to testify tomorrow before a House appropriations subcommittee. President Bush’s budget includes an unprecedented $74 million to bolster education in the District, dividing the money along three pathways. Public schools would get a big chunk to undertake such initiatives as teacher “pay for performance” and leadership training for principals. There would be money to replicate high-performing charter schools. And $18 million would go to the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program, which provides grants for low-income children to attend private schools; it is this third purpose that’s expected to come under scrutiny, if not attack. A Republican-controlled Congress barely approved the program in 2004, and the Democrats who now rule the House are sworn enemies of vouchers. It doesn’t help that District Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D) has been a fierce opponent.

We would hope that Congress would recognize certain truths. First, that the time for a rhetorical debate about this program has passed. There are 1,900 children enrolled — quite happily — in the program. What’s at stake is not a political point of honor but the opportunity for children to go to schools that work for them. Second, it’s a program that is supported by District leaders and embraced by their constituents. A measure of its popularity is how demand for the scholarships outstrips capacity. It’s encouraging that the House subcommittee on financial services and general government, which will hold the hearing, is chaired by Rep. Jose E. Serrano (D-N.Y.), a true believer in the importance of home rule.

Of all the arguments against vouchers, the most pernicious is that they hurt public schools. Never mind that D.C. public schools benefit financially from the funding formula. Public schools failed long before vouchers were even conceived of, and no less an authority than D.C. Schools Chancellor Michelle A. Rhee dismisses that argument out of hand. As she told the Wall Street Journal, “I would never, as long as I am in this role, do anything to limit another parent’s ability to make a choice for their child. Ever.” Let’s hope Congress feels that same compunction.

Updated Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students

Updated Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students

Hot Topics
Updated Study Finds Higher Graduation Rates For Milwaukee Choice Students
May 2008

OR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: MAY 27, 2008

CONTACT: John Robert Warren, Ph.D.
Associate Professor & Director of Undergraduate Studies
Department of Sociology ~ University of Minnesota-Twin Cities
612-280-2945

Students in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) graduate at a higher rate than students in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS), according to an analysis of five years of data by a national expert.

In “Graduation Rates for Choice and Public School Students in Milwaukee: 2003-2007,” John Robert Warren, Ph.D., compares graduation data for students in the MPCP and the MPS. Dr.Warren concludes that “students in the MPCP are more likely to graduate from high school than MPS students.”

According to Warren, had MPS graduation rates equaled those of MPCP students, there would have been almost 20% more public high school graduates between 2003 and 2007. Over the five years studied, that would have meant nearly 3,000 additional MPS graduates.

The report comes on the heels of a directive from Education Secretary Margaret Spellings requiring states to use a standard method for measuring graduation rates by 2012-13.

Spellings’ directive responds in part to scholarship by Warren and others that show that official graduation rates typically overstate actual results.

The MPCP is the nation’s oldest and largest program to provide public support for parents to enroll their children in private schools. Through the program, 18,550 students this year attend one of 122 private schools in the City of Milwaukee.

Dr. Warren’s analysis reports the following comparative graduation rates:

Milwaukee Public Schools students – Milwaukee School choice program students

2003: 49% – 62%
2004: 64% – 61%
2005: 52% – 61%
2006: 55% – 64%
2007: 58% – 85%

About the Author and Report

John Robert Warren is an Associate Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Sociology at the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities. Dr. Warren received his doctorate in 1998 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Dr. Warren’s scholarship reflects extensive examination of issues associated with the accurate measurement of high school graduation rates. In “State-Level High School Completion Rates: Concepts, Measures, and Trends,” he validated a rigorous new method for calculating
graduation rates (see Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 13, No. 51, December 23, 2005 — http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v13n51/).

Dr. Warren participates with scholars at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), an extensive long-term research project involving graduates of Wisconsin high schools in 1957 (see http://www.wisls.org/about.htm).

Dr. Warren also is an expert on the consequences of state high school exit examinations for a variety of student outcomes.

“Graduation Rates for Choice and Public School Students in Milwaukee” was supported by a grant from School Choice Wisconsin, a nonprofit organization that seeks to ensure an honest debate about school choice by providing accurate information on the impact of school choice on families, communities, and schools.

Graduation Rates for Choice and Public Students

Graduation Rates for Choice and Public Students

This study examines whether students in Milwaukee experience greater educational success if they use a voucher to attend a
private school rather than remaining in public schools. While early high-quality research on the Milwaukee Parental Choice
The program suggested that they do, it has been almost a decade since those early evaluations, and critics have continued to question whether the program provides students with better educational opportunities. This study calculates graduation rates for choice students and students remaining in public schools in order to provide new evidence on whether Milwaukee’s voucher program benefits students academically. Choice students in Milwaukee graduate high school at much
higher rates than students in its public schools. What’s more, their graduation rates are higher than those at selective public
high schools whose students are likely to be more advantaged in their background than Milwaukee’s choice students, who are
disproportionately poor and minority. This indicates that choice students’ higher graduation rates are unlikely to be the result of
any demographic bias in the student population. The accuracy of the study’s calculations of graduation rates is confirmed by those produced through an alternative method of calculation:• In the graduating class of 2003, Milwaukee students using vouchers to attend private high schools had a 64% graduation rate.
• That same year, the 37 Milwaukee public high schools for which data are available had a combined graduation rate of 36%.
• Milwaukee’s six academically selective public high schools, whose students are likely to be more advantaged than choice students, had a combined graduation rate of 41% in 2003.
• Using an alternative method to calculate these graduation rates produces similar results, confirming the accuracy of the study’s results. Both the study’s main method and its alternative method are widely accepted by education researchers.

Do students in Milwaukee experience greater educational success if they use a voucher to attend a private school
rather than remaining in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS)? Early high-quality research on the Milwaukee
Parental Choice Program (MPCP) suggested that they do. But it has been almost a decade since those early evaluations,
and the program has grown considerably since then. Critics have continued to question whether the MPCP provides
students with better educational opportunities and whether enough information is available to answer that question.
This study addresses, for the first time, a key issue involving the effects of Milwaukee’s school choice program on
student achievement. In particular, it estimates high school graduation rates for students enrolled in the MPCP and
students enrolled in MPS, and compares the two as a measure of their relative academic achievement. It also presents an
estimated graduation rate for a subset of Milwaukee public high schools that have selective admissions policies.
This study finds that students in the MPCP graduate high school at significantly higher rates than all MPS students.
Furthermore, choice students also graduate at significantly higher rates than students who attend selective MPS high
schools.

Approximately 64% of students who used a voucher to enter 9th grade in 1999 graduated high school in 2003, compared
to 36% of all MPS students. Among students at six MPS high schools with selective admission requirements, an
estimated 41% graduated in the class of 2003. At other MPS high schools, approximately 34% graduated.
Comparing the graduation rate for Milwaukee’s choice students to students at all Milwaukee public high schools as
well as to a selective subset of those schools does not provide a definitive evaluation of the city’s choice program. However,
such a comparison helps confirm earlier research finding that choice students in Milwaukee and other cities have
higher academic achievement. A more definitive evaluation would require longitudinal data for individual students and
employ a random-assignment research design to control for the selection of students into the choice program. In 2003,
the Wisconsin Legislature approved such an evaluation, which was to have been overseen by the state’s nonpartisan
Legislative Audit Bureau, but Governor James Doyle vetoed the bill. Another attempt at launching this important study will likely be made in the next legislative session.

The Impact of School Choice on Racial Integration in Milwaukee Private Schools

The Impact of School Choice on Racial Integration in Milwaukee Private Schools

Religious schools joined the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) in the 1998- 1999 school year. Opponents predicted that this would increase racial segregation. In fact, four years after joining the MPCP, religious schools are more racially integrated than schools in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) district.

Fuller is Director of the Marquette University Institute for the Transformation of Learning and an American Education Reform Council (AERC) board member. Greiveldinger is a Research Associate with AERC.2
The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University defines a school as “intensely segregated” or racially isolated if enrollment is 90% or more minority or white. See Gary Orfield and John Yun, “Resegregation in American Schools,” The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, June 1999.

When enrollment at both religious and non-religious MPCP schools is considered, schools in the MPCP remain slightly more integrated than MPS schools.

A caveat
Integrated schools are desirable. However, in Milwaukee, programs dominated by that goal have had a detrimental impact on many African Americans, the intended beneficiaries.3 Indeed, a major architect of Milwaukee’s integration plan in the 1970s
and 1980s has acknowledged that “white benefit” was a major factor in the development and implementation of the plan.4
The purpose of this report is neither to elevate nor diminish the importance of integration. Rather, its purpose is to respond to claims by voucher opponents that school choice increases segregation.

Background


Through the MPCP, low-income Milwaukee families may use tax-supported education vouchers to send their children to private schools.5 Participation has grown from 341 students in 7 schools in 1990-91 to 10,882 students in 106 private schools in 2001-02. The MPCP is the largest and oldest of the nation’s four public voucher programs targeted at low-income students and students with special education needs.6 The 1995 Wisconsin Legislature expanded the MPCP to include religious schools. The expansion took effect in 1998-99, following a state Supreme Court ruling that religious school participation was constitutional. In an August 12, 1996 lawsuit, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) predicted that the “actual and foreseeable consequences” of including religious schools in the MPCP would be more segregation.7 For example, the NAACP said the “expansion [would provide] state payment for white students to flee from …
integrated [public] schools and attend virtually all-white schools.…” Similar suggestions have emerged as a major theme of groups and individuals opposed to school choice programs.

For example:

Former Governor James Hunt of North Carolina said vouchers would lead to “a separate and unequal system”; a news report on Hunt’s remarks said he warned that “vouchers could speed up the decline of racial integration….”

8 · NAACP President Kweisi Mfume explained his opposition to vouchers by saying, “We can’t allow our nation’s schools to be divided once again by skin color.”

9 Another NAACP official, writing in a Florida paper, said “vouchers encourage
segregation.”10

Jason Brad, Online Educator

Hi! I’m an experienced online educator, and I believe that every child – no matter which income group he belongs to- deserves the best schooling. School Choice programs ensure ample involvement of parents in the process of an all-round development of their children.